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GS+ V 9——环境科学空间统计软件

GS+软件于1988年作为第一个针对个人电脑和工作站的综合地理统计程序被引入。它很快成为全球用户使用的地理统计程序。广受好评的是,GS+是第一个通过集成包提供半方差分析的地理统计软件,它提供了专家所要求的灵活性和新手所欣赏的简单性。GS+支持从Windows 7到10的操作系统。

概述
GS+软件于1988年作为第一个针对个人电脑和工作站的综合地理统计程序被引入。它很快成为全球用户使用的地理统计程序。广受好评的是,GS+是第一个通过集成包提供半方差分析的地理统计软件,它提供了专家所要求的灵活性和新手所欣赏的简单性。GS+支持从Windows 7到10的操作系统。


今天GS+仍然是地球和环境科学的领先的2D地理统计软件。它在世界范围内被工业、政府机构和学术研究人员使用。GS+已被用于数百项空间分析的科学研究。而那些通过ESRI和其他GIS供应商提供GIS软件包的用户更喜欢GS+,因为它可以更全面地访问复杂的分析。输出的文件,可以很容易地将导入到GIS数据库和地图中。


快速执行地理统计分析
地理统计学提供了一种方法,可以更好地理解空间数据中固有的自相关,并定义和使用这种变化,以便更好地估计未被采样的地方的值,从而创建最优、无偏离的地图。GS+提供了对这些计算密集型分析的简单访问。无论您是在分析石油沉积物、浮游生物分布、太阳黑子模式、传染性疾病爆发或土壤资源,GS+都能让您随时掌握地质统计学的功能。


创建变异函数
GS+使您可以完全控制变差函数参数,如主动滞后距离和个体滞后类的大小。默认值提供了合理的起点,您可以优化分析以适应特定的数据集。


自动创建变差函数模型---可以自动创建kriging模型,最大程度地使用迭代技术来优化您的数据,以优化良好的模型拟合。模型窗口允许您覆盖GS+选择的值,滑动条控件允许您立即看到更改的结果。GS+为几乎所有的kriging应用程序提供足够的模型。


由于数据异常,变差函数有时是不规则的---当它们是唯一的值时,它们就会变得很明显,而不是与其他值在特定的范围内自动关联。GS+提供了h散射图和方差云分析,使您能够快速地可视化和识别异常值,并且新的掩饰命令允许您像外科手术一样移除(暂时或永久地)违规数据记录。定向变异(各向异性)函数是同时产生的各向同性的变量,所以您可以很容易地评估自相关是否依赖于罗盘的方向。例如,当存在一个斜率效应或其他环境特征时,在一个方向上的自相关与另一个方向的自相关是不同的。


在不同的罗盘方向上创建不同的半方差图,可以很容易地识别出GS+的各向异性。如果存在,您可以很容易地定义一个最大变化的角度来使用各向异性变量模型。

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计算11种不同类型的自关测量变量
变差函数仅是GS+提供的一种自相关函数。GS+还包括相关图、磁图、RodoGrand、协方差图、漂移、Moran’I、分形维数、标准化、一般相对和成对相对变差函数。所有的都在各向同性和各向异性的方向上进行评估。


导入各种来源的数据
可以直接编辑GS+工作表,并且可以从各种来源导入数据到工作表中--以不同方式格式化的文本文件、Excel电子表格、Access和其他数据库文件,或从任何其他Windows程序中剪切和粘贴。也有几种方法来表示丢失的值,并且电子表格中的任何值都可以通过设置一个临时缺失的value属性从特定的分析中删除。工作表可接受超过10亿条记录。


在地质统计学之前总结您的数据
GS+还提供基本的参数统计,使您能够在地质统计学分析之前对数据进行描述。当一个数据集准备进行分析时,GS+报告统计数据,例如平均值、范围、标准差、峰度和偏度,也会创建频率和概率分布,这样您就可以评估偏离正常的情况。分位数散射图提供了样本位置的可视映射,并确定具有特定值的数据的位置。


满足各种需求的插值方法
GS+提供了三种不同类型的插值。普通的kriging(包括块和准时性)提供了一个跨空间域属性的最优估计。条件模拟还提供最优估计,但在其位置上的原始数据可以用于映射域中的尖锐边界。基于简单的最近邻计算,逆距离加权可能是最好的非地质统计插值技术。GS+还提供cokriging,当您的主要数据由许多额外位置收集的辅助数据支持时,这可能是有用的。Cokriging可用于块和准时kriging,并可用于有条件的模拟。协同定位cokriging可用于条件模拟。多边形掩码允许您在映射的域中包含或排除复杂的形状。跨越岛屿或避免在停车场内插补--还可以嵌套多边形并重叠它们。


创建可由许多其他程序使用的内插输出文件
GS+创建插值输出文件(从kriging、cokriging、模拟或逆距离技术),可以读取到许多其他类型的映射程序。GS+将使用这些文件来创建它自己的地图,或者您可以将数据读入支持ARCIFIO?或Surfver?输入格式的任何GIS或映射程序中。


交叉验证允许您根据采样数据测试插值系统
在交叉验证分析中,空间域中的每个测量点被单独地从域中移除,并且通过Kriging或逆距离加权来估计其值,尽管它从未存在过。以这种方式,可以构造域中每个样本位置的估计值与实际值的图,并用于测试插值系统。


自定义您的GS+图形和地图的所有细节,并发布到任何地方
一组丰富的图形编辑选项允许您更改轴、字体、透视图、标题、符号和许多其他图形属性。可以将地图和图形打印或发送到Windows剪贴板或可由Web浏览器、文字处理器或接受WMF、JPEG、PNG或BMP格式的任何其他Windows程序读取的文件。

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系统需求
GS+软件只适用于Windows系统。

GS+ -- Geostatistics for the Environmental Sciences
About GS+
GS+ is a comprehensive geostatistics program that is fast, efficient, and easy to use. GS+ provides all geostatistics components, from semivariance analysis through kriging and mapping, in a single integrated program widely praised for its flexibility and friendly interface. Many users are surprised that geostatistical analysis can be so easy and intuitive.

What is geostatistics? Geostatistics is a class of statistical techniques developed to analyze and predict values of a variable distributed in space or time. It begins with a type of autocorrelation analysis called variography or semivariance analysis, in which the degree of self-similarity is displayed as a variogram. The variogram model is used to predict unsampled locations by kriging or conditional simulation, which produces estimates of the variable across the entire spatial or temporal domain.

GS+ was first introduced in 1988. Geostatistics is not an add-on feature of GS+ – it is at the heart of the software. Many of our users have access to other geostatistics tools within their favorite GIS or mapping programs but come to GS+ for their serious geostatistical analyses, especially for exploring geostatistical relationships within data sets. Because GS+ output is compatible with industry standards, GS+ can be used directly with many of these other programs. Or it can be used standalone – GS+ has its own data worksheet (which also accepts Excel?, Access?, and other types of data files) and produces its own maps for those users who are not working with other mapping programs.

About Gamma Design Software, LLC Gamma Design Software was started in 1988 to bring geostatistical analysis to desktop computers. Before 1988 geostatistical software was available mainly for mainframes and supercomputers, and was largely unavailable to those unwilling or unable to compile source code on their own. Since then, Gamma Design has been a world leader in providing accessible, powerful, and easy-to-learn geostatistical software for the evolving Windows environment.

2D Geostatistics
GS+ is geostatistics software used the world over. A rich,
fast and intuitive platform for both new and experienced
geostatistics users.

Version 9 now shipping!
helps you quickly perform geostatistical analysis
creates variograms on the fly
provides 11 different autocorrelation measures
imports data from a wide variety of sources
summarizes your data prior to geostatistical analysis
provides kriging, conditional simulation and nearest neighbor interpolations
creates output files usable by a wide variety of other programs
performs cross-validation to test your interpolation system against sampled data
allows you to customize all graph and map details and publish to anywhere

GS+ Quickly perform geostatistical analysis
Geostatistics provides a way to better understand the autocorrelation inherent in spatial data –and to define and use this variation to make better estimates of values for places not sampled and thereby create optimal, unbiased maps. GS+ provides easy access to these computationally intense analyses. Whether you are analyzing oil deposits, plankton distributions, sun spot patterns, infectious disease outbreaks or soil resources, GS+ allows you ready access to the power of geostatistics.

Create variograms on the fly
GS+ gives you complete control over variogram parameters such as
the active lag distance and the size of individual lag classes. Default values provide reasonable starting places from which you can optimize an analysis to suit a particular data set.

Model your variograms automatically –GS+ can automatically create a model for kriging that honors your data to the maximum extent possible using iterative techniques to optimize good model fits. A model window lets you override the values that GS+ chooses and slider controls allow you to immediately see the results of changes. GS+ provides models sufficient for almost all kriging applications.

Variograms are sometimes erratic due to data anomalies – outliers that become apparent when they are the only values not autocorrelated with other values at a particular scale. GS+ provides h-Scattergram and Variance Cloud analyses to allow you to visualize and identify outliers fast, and a new masking command allows you to surgically remove (either temporarily or permanently) the offending data record.

Directional (anisotropic) variograms are produced at the same time as isotropic variograms so you can readily evaluate whether autocorrelation is dependent on compass direction. This occurs, for example, when there is a slope effect or some other environmental feature that causes autocorrelation in one direction to be different from autocorrelation in another.

It’s easy to recognize anisotropy in GS+ by creating variogram maps –graphs of semivariance in different compass directions. If present, you can then easily define an angle of maximum variation to use for the anisotropic variogram models.

Calculate 11 different types of autocorrelation measures
Variograms are only one type of autocorrelation provided by GS+. Also included are correlograms, madograms, rodograms, covariograms, drift, Moran’s I, fractal dimension, and standardized, general relative, and pairwise relative variograms. All are evaluated in both isotropic and anisotropic directions.

Import data from a wide variety of sources
The GS+ worksheet can be directly edited and you can import data into the worksheet from a variety of sources –text files formatted in different ways, Excel spreadsheets, Access and other database files, or cut and paste from any other Windows program. There are also several ways to indicate missing values, and any value in the spreadsheet can be removed from a particular analysis by setting a temporary missing value attribute. The worksheet accepts over a billion records.

Summarize your data prior to geostatistical analysis
GS+ also provides basic parametric statistics to enable you to characterize your data prior to geostatistical analysis. When a data set is prepared for analysis, GS+ reports stats such as the mean, range, standard deviation, and kurtosis and skewness, and also creates frequency and probability distributions so you can evaluate departures from normality. Quantile scattergrams provide a visual map of your sample locations and identify the locations of data with particular values.

Interpolation methods to meet every need
Three different types of interpolation are provided by GS+. Ordinary kriging (both block and punctual) provide optimal estimates for a property across the spatial domain. Conditional simulation also provides optimal estimates but honors original data at their locations so can be used to map sharp boundaries in a domain. Inverse distance weighting is probably the best non-geostatistical interpolation technique, based on simple nearest neighbor calculations.

GS+ also provides cokriging, which can be useful when your primary data are supported by secondary data collected at many additional locations. Cokriging is available for both block and punctual kriging and co-located cokriging is available for conditional simulation.

Polygon masks allow you to include or exclude complex shapes in the domain being mapped. Interpolate across an island or avoid interpolating across a parking lot –you can also nest polygons and overlap them.

Create interpolation output files that are usable by many other programs
GS+ creates interpolation output files (from kriging, cokriging, simulation, or inverse distance techniques) that can be read into many other types of mapping programs. GS+ will use these files to create it’s own maps or you can read the data into any GIS or mapping program that supports ArcInfo? or Surfer? input formats.

Cross-validation allows you to test your interpolation system against sampled data
In cross-validation analysis each measured point in a spatial domain is individually removed from the domain and its value estimated via kriging or inverse distance weighting as though it were never there. In this way a graph of estimated vs. actual values for each sample location in the domain can be constructed and used to test the interpolation system.

Customize all details of your GS+ graphs and maps and publish to anywhere
A rich set of graph editing options allow you to change axes, fonts, perspective, titles, symbols and many other graph attributes. Maps and graphs can be printed or sent to the Windows clipboard or to a file that can be read by web browsers, word processors, or any other Windows program that accepts wmf, jpeg, png, or bmp formats.