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GAMS软件能源行业案例——优化碳捕获技术

通过碳捕获和储存来优化应对气候变化

美国的发电部门是二氧化碳排放的主要贡献者。因此,该部门的减排将在应对气候变化的任何协调的二氧化碳减排努力中发挥核心作用。一种可能帮助发电部门应对这一挑战的技术选择是碳捕捉和储存(CCS)。碳捕获技术可以显著减少化石燃料发电厂二氧化碳的大气排放。被捕获的二氧化碳通过管道网络运输并安全储存。这些技术的广泛应用对于显著减少温室气体排放,并为清洁能源组合做出贡献是必要的。但是这种部署既昂贵又耗时,将这种技术应用到网上可能需要20到30年才能实现产业化。



美国能源部在两项目中使用GAMS软件旨在推进碳捕获技术。NETL二氧化碳捕获、运输、利用和储存(CTUS)模型优化了二氧化碳管道和储存基础设施的潜在网络。美国能源部成立的碳捕捉模拟计划(CCSI)旨在使碳捕获技术更容易地用于工业。他们的优化工具集使行业能够快速评估和利用这些新技术。GAMS很自豪能成为碳捕获项目成功的一部分。

分析二氧化碳运输和储存网络

美国能源部使用GAMS分析潜在的二氧化碳减排情况,CCS可能发挥作用,满足排放标准。美国能源部国家能源技术实验室开发的NETL二氧化碳捕获、运输、利用和储存(CTUS)模型都是用GAMS编写的。它通过运输和存储网络的成本最小化,通过混合整数规划(MIP)进行优化,评估CO2管道的潜在网络和存储基础设施,以处理从CCS启用的电力部门的捕获和运输二氧化碳的运输和储存。这种类型的问题特别适合用GAMS来处理,因为处理的数据量非常大、解决方案方法、与其他建模平台集成的能力,以及为最终整合到更全面的能源经济模型中对时间的严格要求。


到目前为止,CTUS模型已经被集成到国家能源建模系统(NEMS)中,并且也被整合到MARKAL能源模型中。当集成到NEMS作为CTUS子模块时,在能源经济预测中详细描述了碳捕获和存储。通过这个功能,成本可变性和能力约束被引入到能源经济预测中,因为它认为CCS系统是缓解气候变化情景的一种选择。这种能力使在整个预测期内运输和储存的二氧化碳的位置和时间的特定量得以确定。CTUS的一个版本已经被修改,并被纳入美国能源信息管理局(EIA)的NEMS版本,并被用于生产年度能源展望。


CCSI优化工具集

碳捕获模拟倡议的目标是加快碳捕获技术的部署进程。CCSI是由美国能源部在2011成立的,它和国家实验室、工业和学术机构是合伙伙伴的关系。CCSI优化工具集可以帮助工业发展和部署先进的碳捕获和能源相关技术。

新科技的技术和经济表现严重依赖于其设备配置和操作条件。因此,为了对新技术进行严格的筛选和评估,确保使用最优流程是很重要的。优化工具确定了潜在的二氧化碳捕获过程的最佳设备配置和操作条件,这样就大大降低了实施过程中涉及的成本、时间和风险。


CCSI研究小组已经开发了两种高级优化功能,作为其不确定性和替代工具(FOQUS)的优化和量化框架的一部分。两种功能都使用了GAMS软件。第一个工具基于严格模型进行同步过程优化和热集成。热集成问题在GAMS中用LPs和MIPs来建模,并用CPLEX求解器来解决。另一个工具优化了二氧化碳捕获系统的设计和操作。碳捕获系统被表达为一种MINLP模型,在GAMS中用DICOPT或BARON求解器来解决。通过确定二氧化碳捕获过程的最佳配置和条件,这些CCSI优化工具允许更有效地对未来技术的材料和概念进行筛选。

significantly reduce atmospheric emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel power plants. The captured CO2 is then transported through a network of pipelines and stored safely. A widespread deployment of these technologies is necessary to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and contribute to a clean energy portfolio. But the deployment is both expensive and time-consuming: bringing such technologies online can take industries between 20 and 30 years.

The U.S. Department of Energy is using GAMS in two projects aimed at advancing carbon capture technologies. The NETL CO2 Capture, Transport, Utilization and Storage (CTUS) model optimizes potential networks of CO2 pipelines and storage infrastructure. The Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative (CCSI), founded by the U.S. Department of Energy, aims at making carbon capture technologies more easily available for industries. Their Optimization Toolset enables industry to rapidly assess and utilize these new technologies. GAMS is proud to be a part of these projects designed to make carbon capture a success.


Analyzing CO2 Transport and Storage Networks

The U.S. Department of Energy uses GAMS to analyze potential CO2 emission reduction scenarios in which CCS may play a role in meeting emission goals. The NETL CO2 Capture, Transport, Utilization and Storage (CTUS) model developed by the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory is written in GAMS. It optimizes by minimizing the cost of the transport and storage network, via a mixed integer program (MIP), evaluating potential networks of CO2 pipelines and storage infrastructure amenable to handling the transport and storage of captured CO2 from the CCS enabled electricity sector. This type of problem was particularly well-suited for GAMS due to the volume of data processed, the solution methodology, the ability to integrate with other modeling platforms, and the stringent requirements for solve time required of this capability in order to eventually integrate into more holistic energy-economy models.

Thus far, the CTUS model has been integrated into the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and is also being integrated into the MARKAL energy model. When integrated into NEMS as the CTUS sub-module, a detailed portrayal of carbon capture and storage in energy economy projections is rendered. Through this capability, cost variability and capacity constraints are introduced into the energy-economy forecast as it considers CCS systems as an option in climate mitigation scenarios. This capability makes possible identification of location and time specific volumes of CO2 transported and stored throughout the projection period. A version of CTUS has been modified and incorporated into the U.S. Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) version of NEMS and is in turn used to produce the Annual Energy

The CCSI Optimization Toolset

It is the express goal of the Carbon Capture Simulation Initiative to speed up the deployment process of carbon capture technologies. Founded by the U.S. Department of Energy in 2011, CCSI is a partnership among national laboratories, industry and academic institutions. The CCSI optimization toolset helps industry to develop and deploy advanced carbon capture and energy related technologies.

The technical and economic performance of a new technology is strongly dependent on its equipment configuration and operating conditions. Thus, to rigorously screen and evaluate new technologies, it is important to ensure that an optimal process is used. The optimization tools identify optimal equipment configurations and operating conditions for potential CO2 capture processes, thereby significantly reducing cost, time and risk involved in the implementation.

The CCSI research group has developed two advanced optimization capabilities as part of its Framework for Optimization and Quantification of Uncertainty and Surrogates (FOQUS) tool. Both utilize GAMS as an essential element. The first tool performs simultaneous process optimization and heat integration based on rigorous models. The heat integration subproblem is modeled in GAMS as LPs and MIPs and solved by CPLEX. The other tool optimizes the design and operation of a CO2 capture system. The carbon capture system is represented as a MINLP model, which is implemented in GAMS and solved by DICOPT or BARON. By identifying the optimal configurations and conditions for CO2 capture processes, these CCSI optimization tools allow more effective screening of materials and concepts for future technologies.